Instability of the ankle joint most often develops as a consequence of trauma and is a common complication of so-called ankle sprains. Its cause may be due to a complete rupture of ligament continuity, or it may be the result of abnormal healing of the ligament in excessive extension. Ankle instability results in frequent sprains of the joint, and untreated instability leads to premature degenerative joint disease, which is irreversible. The main symptoms of this degenerationare:
- pain and tenderness in the ankle joint, foot and knee (due to altered mechanics of the fibula after injury),
- tingling sensation in the toes due to active trigger points in the fibula and damage to the fibula nerve fibres,
- joint pain during physical activity,
- crepitations in the ankle joint.
For severe instability of the ankle joint, surgeryis recommended. It consists of ligament suturing in case of acute damage or, in case of chronic instability, ligament reconstruction with the use of grafts. The procedure itself in our clinic takes only up to 2 hours.
- complete rupture of ligaments with acute instability of the ankle joint that impairs biomechanics and prevents return to normal activity,
- ankle sprain that could not be managed with conservative treatment,
- chronic mechanical instability with degeneration of the ankle joint, when conservative treatment does not have the desired effect.
The treatment of ankle instability after surgery depends, among other things, on the surgical technique used and is always adapted to the needs of the patient. Most often a light semi-rigid ankle brace is used, which secures the inversion mechanism of the ankle joint and limits its mobility. During this period, partial loading of the joint is allowed. The brace is usually removed after 2 weeks. Passive, passive-active and active rehabilitation exercises are started as soon as possible, usually24 hours after the surgery.
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